About Greece - History


Location History Gallery Links


Trying to learn the Greek history can be prooved to be a Herculian task as the vast past of the country and its offer to civilization are without doubt unique. Surrounded by civilizations such as the Egyptian, Phynician and the close distance to Messopotamia area prooved to be the motive power for the county's glorious past which is impossible to handle in a simple web-page. In case are interested in learning more about the History and the Mythology of Greece, please click the links button and visit the pages that you can find there.
Note that this timeline is by no means comprehensive.  It is meant to give you a brief summary of ancient Greek history from 2000 to 250 BC.

Timeline of Ancient Greece


2000 Ancestors of Greeks probably in Greece by now.  Minoan Palace society begins on Crete
1750 Peak of Minoan civilization in Crete.
1700 Knossos destroyed by earthquake or war
1600 Knossos rebuilt within a century; brilliant civilization flourishes
1500 Peak of Mycenaean civilization. Hittite Empire in Asia Minor.
1470 Volcano destroys Cretan civilization through ash, poisonous vapors,seismic 250 meter high waves. Mycenae established as new cultural center
1250 Decline and eclipse of Mycenaean civilization.
1200 Trojan war begins
1184 City of Troy falls to the Greeks under Agamemnon
1000 Greek colonization of eastern coasts of Aegean.
850 Iliad and Odyssey
790Greek trading settlement at Al Mina in Syria
776 First recorded Olympic games held; they are open only to pure Greeks with no police record
760 - 750Euboean foundation of Cumae in Italy
750 Geometric Pottery. Beginning of Greek colonization in Mediterranean and Black Sea.
735 onwards Greek colonization of Sicily and south Italy
735 - 715Spartan conquest of Messenia
700 Lelantine War between Chalcis and Eretria
700 - 650 Cimmerian raids in Asia Minor
700 Homer.
700 Milesian colonization of Black Sea and approaches; continuous contact with Egypt opened
665 Egypt independent under Psamtek I (XXVI Dynasty)
664 Naval battle between Corinth and Corcyra, the first sea battle known to Thucydides
650 Messenian revolt against Sparta. Tyrtaeus. 'Lycurgan' reform at Sparta.  Early Lyric poets. Early sculpture.
650 Cypselus overthrows Bacchiad aristocracy at Corinth. Tyranny at Sicyon. Archilochus
632 Cylon unsuccessfully attempts tyranny at Athens
630 Thera founds Cyrene
621 Draco, Athenian lawgiver, issues a code making nearly every offense a capital crime ("draconian")
600 End of Assyria. Lydia powerful in western Asia Minor.  Alcman
597 Athenian statesman Solon established government by the rich
595 - 586 Sacred War for control of Delphi
594 Archonship of Solon at Athens
590 - 580 Pittacus' rule at Mytilene. Poet Sappho flourishes on island of Lesbos. Poet Alcaeus
585 Battle between Medes and Lydians interrupted by solar eclipse, allegedly foretold by Thales
583 Overthrow of Corinthian tyranny
582 First regular celebration of Pythian games at Delphi
581 Isthmian games
573 Nemean games
565 General Peisistratus organizes political party of farmers, shepherds, artisans, and the poor; later he will confiscate his enemies' wealth and give it to the poor
561 Peisistratus' first attempt at tyranny at Athens
560Spartan defeat in Arcadia
550Sparta dominant in Peloponnese. Treaty with Tegea
550 Rise of Persian Empire.
546Final establishment of Peisistratus' tyranny at Athens
545 Cyrus overthrows Croesus of Lydia and conquers Ionia
528 - 527 Hippias succeeds Peisistratus at Athens
510 Sparta expels Hippias from Athens. Conflict between Isagoras and Cleisthenes
507 Reforms of Cleisthenes at Athens
506 Spartan expedition against Athens frustrated by mutiny of Corinthians and others
500 First known conference of Peloponnesian League. Heraclitus. Empedocles. Threat of Persian Empire to Greece. Persian invasion of Greece defeated.
499 - 494 Ionian Revolt against Persia
498 - 491 Hippocrates tyrant of Gela
498 Earliest dated poem of Pindar
490Birth of Herodotus
490 Athens wins battle of Marathon against Persians led by Darius.  Gelon tyrant at Gela
485 - 478 Gelon tyrant at Syracuse
483 Themistocles persuades Athens to build large fleet
480 Battle of Thermopylae and Artemisium won by Persians under Xerxes; Persians occupy Attica and sack Athens; Battle of Salamis returns victory to Greeks.  Gelon defeats Carthaginians at Himera
479 Greek victories over Persians at Plataea and Mycale ends Persian invasions
478 - 477 Pausanias recalled to Sparta. Athens founds Confederacy of Delos. Hieron succeeds Gelon at Syracuse
478 Pausanias' campaign to Cyprus and Byzantium
475 - 465 Anti-Spartan movement in Peloponnese
474 Hieron defeats Etruscans at Cumae
472 Aeschylus presents his first surviving play, The Persae (The Persians) thereby founding a classical tragedy through use of heroic infusions into previously simple form
470Revolt of Naxos against Athens
469Cimon's victory over Persians at R. Eurymedon
468 Sophocles wins first tragedy drama prize defeating Aeschylus.  Death of Simonides
467 Death of Hieron
466 - 465 Revolt of Thasos from Athens
464 Earthquake at Sparta. Messenian revolt
462 Reforms of Ephialtes at Athens. Murder of Ephialtes. Exile of Cimon
460 - 454 Athenian expedition to Egypt
459 - 454 Fighting in Greece (First Peloponnesian War)
458 Oresteian trilogy by Aeschylus
457 Golden age in Athens begins as Pericles promotes architecture and art and studies philosophy with Anaxagoras
455 Euripides' first play. Approximate date of Thucydides' birth
454 Treasury of Confederacy moved from Delos to Athens
451 Pericles' law restricting Athenian citizenship
450 Great age of Attic tragedy. Parthenon. Herodotos.
449 Herodotus's l History
449 Peace between Athens and Persia
448 Rebuilding of Persian-destroyed Acropolis
447 Parthenon begun
446 Boeotia and Megara revolt from Athenian control. Federal constitution of Boeotia. Spartan invasion of Attica. Thirty Years' Peace between Athens and Sparta
441 Euripedes wins drama prize
440 Heracleitus forms theory of universal flux
440 Revolt of Samos against Athens
438 Parthenon completed
437 Athens founds Amphipolis in Thrace
436 Birth of Isocrates
432 Peloponnesian wars begin
431 Theory of four humors of the body formed by Empedocles
431 Outbreak of Peloponnesian War
429 - 427 Peloponnesian siege of Plataea
429 Death of Pericles; plague destroys a third of the population.  Birth of Plato
427 - 424 First Athenian expedition to Sicily
427 Aristophanes' first play
425 Spartan detachment cut off on Sphacteria near Pylos and forced to surrender
424 Oedipus Rex by Sophocles.   Expedition of Brasidas to Thrace. Athenian defeat at Delium in Boeotia Brasidas captures Amphipolis. Thucydides exiled from Athens
422 Battle outside Amphipolis, Cleon and Brasidas killed
421 Alcibiades comes to the fore of political and military intrigue
421 Peace of Nicias
420 onwards Sporadic fighting in Peloponnese
418 Sparta defeats Athens and Argos at Mantineia
416 Alcibiades urges conquest of Sicily and Carthage
415 Alcibiades accused of destroying religious statues and is called to stand trial; he joins Spartans against Athens.  Athenian expedition against Syracuse
413 Sparta formally resumes war against Athens, and fortifies Deceleia in Attica. Destruction of Athenian force in Sicily
412 Spartans lose confidence in Alcibiades; he goes to Persia
411 – 410 Oligarchic revolution of the Four Hundred at Athens
411 Democracy overthrown by oligarchic extremists Antiphon, Peisander and Phrynichus; Alcibiades recalled and reelected general
410 Spartans and Persians crushed under leadership of Alcibiades
409 Recapture of Byzantium.   Carthaginian invasion of Sicily
408 Alcibiades enters Athens in triumph is given autocratic powers
407 Alcibiades defeated at Notium; is replaced
406 Athenian victory over Spartan fleet at Arginusae Six of the victorious generals condemned to death for not picking up survivors
405 Aristophanes produced The Frogs.  Dionysius I tyrant at Syracuse. Athenian fleet defeated at Aegos potami in Hellespont
404 Athens capitulates to Sparta; ends Peloponnesian war; Athens is starved into submission; plague sweeps city
404 Surrender of Athens. Revolt of Egypt from Persia. Oligarchy of the Thirty set up at Athens
403 Restoration of democracy at Athens
401 Thucydides dies.   March of Cyrus the Younger against Artaxerxes II. Cyrus killed at Cunaxa. Retreat of the Ten Thousand to the sea with Xenophon one of their leaders
400 - 395 Spartan campaigns against Persians in Asia Minor
400 Peloponnesian War. Socrates. Thucydides. Aristophanes.
399 Socrates condemned and executed for flouting conventional ideas and corrupting youth
396 Siege of Syracuse by Carthaginians who withdraw after plague in their camp
395 Alliance of Thebes/Athens/Argos against Sparta. Battle at Haliartus and death of Lysander
394 Corinthian War. Spartan victories at Nemea River and Coroneia
392 Spartan victory at Lechaeum outside Corinth.  Negotiations for peace;first mention of 'Common Peace'. Democratic revolution in Corinth
390 Iphicrates destroys Spartan mora
387 - 386 King's Peace
384 Birth of Aristotle
383 Spartans seize citadel of Thebes
379 - 378 Liberation of Thebes
378 - 371 Athens and Thebes at war with Sparta
378 Sphodrias' march against Peiraeus. His acquittal at Sparta. Formation of Second Athenian Confederacy
373 Destruction of temple of Apollo at Delphi
371 Thebes defeats Sparta at Leuctra
370 Murder of Jason of Pherae
367 Death of Dionysius I; succession of Dionysius II. Plato at Syracuse
362 Battle of Mantineia; death of Epameinondas
359 Accession of Philip II of Macedona
357 - 355 Social War between Athens and her allies
357 Dion 'liberates' Syracuse
356 Philomelus of Phocis seizes Delphi. Outbreak of Sacred War
354 c. Death of Xenophon
354 Tomb for King Mausolus built at Halicarnassus.  Demosthenes' first public speech
350 Plato.
347 Plato's Academy founded and will continue for 876 years; Plato formulates The Republic.  Death of Plato. Aristotle leaves Athens
346 Peace of Philocrates between Athens and Philip. Philip ends Sacred War
344 Expedition of Timoleon to Sicily
343 Demosthenes' unsuccessful prosecution of Aeschines. Aristotle goes to Macedon as tutor to Alexander
342 Aristotle, pupil of Plato, arrives in Macedon where his father is physician to King Philip
340 Resumption of war between Athens and Philip
338 Philip of Macedon defeats Athenians and Thebans at Battle of Chaeronea.  Death of Isocrates. Formation of League of Corinth
336 Philip assassinated; succeeded by Alexander
335 Aristotle returns to Athens, opens a Lycaeum; develops a deductive system and scientific method.   Alexander destroys Thebes
334 Alexander invades Asia
333 Alexander is victorious over Persia
332 Alexander is victorious over Egypt
331 Alexander is master of the Persian empire
330 Alexander takes Persepolis; atomic theory of Democritus is developed
329 Alexander enters Samarkand
327 Alexander takes southern India
325 The Persae by Tinotheus of Miletus is the earliest papyrus written in Greek that will survive
324 Meander writes "new comedy" in a lighter vein than the plays of Aristophanes
323 Alexander dies of typhoid fever; wars of Diadochi (successors) begin for control of his empire
30O End of the Persian Empire.
250 Hellenistic kingdoms.